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The Three Phases of Voice Production


Singing involves both our mind and body. While we can all imagine simple melodies or songs in our heads, actually producing those sounds with our voice can be challenging. This is because singing requires a physical process called voice production. To understand how our voice works, let's learn about the three phases of voice production: vibration, resonation, and articulation.

The Science of Voice: Phase 1 – Vibration

The Vocal Folds and the Larynx

The first phase of creating sound with our voice is called vibration. This phase involves the movement of our vocal folds, which are two elastic, multilayered, muscular folds in our throat. These vocal folds are also known as vocal cords. The largest layer of the vocal folds is called the thyroarytenoid muscle, and it has a part called the vocalis muscle that can shorten and relax the vocal folds when we speak or sing.

The vocal folds are located in a structure called the larynx, which is about the size of a marshmallow. The larynx is made up of cartilage, muscles, ligaments, membrane, and tissue. Its main job is to protect the vocal folds. The cartilage in the larynx can move to open and close the vocal folds and change their length and width.

The epiglottis is a soft cartilage that serves as part of the protective swallowing mechanism. It folds backward over the glottis during a swallow so that food and liquids do not go into the lungs. However, it is not involved in normal voice production.

Breathing and Phonation

When we breathe normally, our vocal folds stay separated, like an open valve, to let air pass freely into our lungs when we inhale and to let carbon dioxide out when we exhale. When we start making sound, it happens during the exhalation phase of breathing. As we exhale, our vocal folds start moving towards each other, which is called approximation or adduction. They meet in the middle of the glottis, the space between the vocal folds. This movement obstructs the flow of air through the glottis, just like when you stretch the lips of an inflated balloon to stop the air from escaping.

This obstruction of airflow creates pressure below the closing vocal folds, known as sub-glottal pressure. The pressure pushes the vocal folds apart for a moment, releasing a small amount of compressed air from below the glottis. This stream of air then vibrates the molecules in the air above the vocal folds, creating sound waves. The vocal folds quickly snap back together, and this cycle repeats itself.

The Bernoulli Principle and Sound Waves

The vocal folds snap back together quickly during phonation because of something called the Bernoulli Principle. This principle states that when a fluid substance, like air, flows through a narrow opening, the velocity of the substance increases, causing a drop in air pressure. This drop in air pressure moves whatever is nearby towards the flowing substance. In the case of vibrating vocal folds, the breath flowing between them causes a drop in air pressure in the glottis, which brings the vocal folds together and closes the glottis. This Bernoulli Principle happens continuously during phonation.

The rapid opening and closing of the vocal folds, happening between 60 to 200 times per second, creates vibration and produces sound waves. These sound waves, also known as compression waves, occur when air molecules are vibrated by the vocal folds and bump into neighboring air molecules. It's like throwing a stone into calm water and seeing ripples move outwards. Similarly, sound waves travel up and away from the larynx to different parts of our vocal tract, including the throat and mouth.

The sound waves that come directly from the larynx contain the fundamental frequency or basic pitch of our voice, as well as overtones. Overtones are other pitches that harmonize with the fundamental pitch, and together they create our unique tonal quality.

Unlocking the Power of Your Voice: Phase 2: Resonation

The Magic of Vocal Resonance

Let’s now take a look at the second phase of your voice: resonation. You know how your vocal folds create sound waves that form the basis of your voice? Well, those sound waves need a little help to sound their best. That's where vocal resonance comes in!

What is Vocal Resonance?

Vocal resonance is all about amplifying and dampening certain sound frequencies to create the perfect blend of tones in your voice. Think of it like tuning a guitar string to make it sound just right. Resonance happens in different areas of your throat and mouth, and it's what gives your voice its unique sound.

The Resonating Areas

The main areas responsible for vocal resonance are the laryngopharynx (the throat area above your voice box), the oropharynx (the back of your throat, including the soft palate), and the oral cavity (your mouth). Even your nasal cavities play a role, especially when you make certain sounds like "m" and "n".

The Amazing Pharynx

The pharynx is like a superhero when it comes to resonance. It has powerful muscles that not only help with swallowing food and liquid but also adjust its width and length to create different vowel sounds. It's like a shape-shifter for your voice!

The Versatile Soft Palate

The soft palate, also known as the velum, is another important player in resonance. It's made up of flexible muscles that help fine-tune the sound of your voice. It's like having a built-in equalizer for your vocal tones.

The Adaptable Oral Cavity

The oral cavity, which includes your tongue, jaw, cheeks, and lips, is the most adjustable part of your voice production. These multi-muscled buddies work together to create the perfect resonance. They're like the dynamic duo of your voice!

The Power of Vowel Sounds

Now, let's talk about the stars of the show: vowel sounds! Each vowel has its own unique vocal formant structure, which is a fancy way of saying they have their own special sound-energy distribution. The larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and even the nasal cavities all team up to create these vowel sounds. And guess what? Every language has its own way of resonating vowels, making them even more special!

So, there you have it! Resonation is all about finding the perfect balance of sound frequencies in your voice. It's like a symphony of vibrations happening in your throat and mouth. Keep exploring and discovering the power of your voice!

Phase 3: Articulation - Giving Shape to Your Voice

What is Articulation?

Now that we've learned about vibration and resonation, it's time to talk about articulation. Articulation is what gives your voice its final shape by creating the words and phrases that make up your singing and speaking voice. It's all about how your tongue, mouth, cheeks, jaw, and other parts of your mouth work together to create different sounds.

What are Consonants?

Consonants are the parts of speech and singing that are formed by the air coming out of your mouth. Some consonants, like "p" and "k," need more air to produce, while others, like "v" and "z," need less air. The way your vocal cords come together also affects how the air flows when you make consonant sounds. Different parts of your mouth are involved in making different consonant sounds. For example, your nasal cavities play a big role in making the sounds "m" and "n." All consonants need the help of your mouth and other articulation parts to be useful in speech and singing.

Blending Vowels and Consonants

When you speak or sing, you use words that are made up of both vowels and consonants. How well you blend these sounds together can affect how easy or difficult it is for you to speak or sing. Some consonant sounds can interrupt the smooth production of your voice because they need more airflow. This can make it harder to produce a resonant voice.

The Importance of Vowels

Vowel sounds are at the core of vocal quality. Words that have more emphasis on vowels, like "pain" and "door," are usually easier to produce. In these words, the vowels take up more time when you say or sing them compared to the consonants. On the other hand, words like "tingle" can be more challenging because the consonants "n," "g," and "l" take up more time than the vowel "i." This can make it harder to produce a resonant voice.

Language and Singing

Some languages are easier to speak and sing than others because of how they use vowels and consonants. Italian, for example, is known as the "language of song" because it lends itself well to flowing and resonant singing. Italian words are constructed in a way that emphasizes vowels and minimizes interrupting consonant sounds. This creates a continuous flow of resonant sounds, allowing for a wide range of vocal expression.

On the other hand, languages like Chinese can be more challenging to sing. In Chinese, consonants like "p," "n," and "g" can overpower the vowels. Singing in Chinese requires adjusting the way words are sung to give more weight to the vowels and less to the consonants. It's interesting to note that Chinese is a tonal language, meaning the pitch at which words are produced affects their meaning. This shows that languages where vowels dominate over consonants are more important for overall singing ability than languages that focus on pitch control.

The Magic of Singing: Unlocking Your Voice Potential

The Natural Gift of Singing

Now, here's the exciting part. Some people are born with a natural talent for singing. They have an automatic coordination between their mind and body when it comes to voice production. That's why they can sing beautifully without any training. It's like they were born to be singers!

Unlocking Your Voice Potential

But what about the rest of us who don't have this natural gift? Can we still learn to sing and experience the joy of music? Absolutely! With practice and dedication, anyone can become a great singer.

Training and Practice

If you want to improve your singing skills, training and practice are key. Take singing lessons, join a choir, or practice with vocal exercises. The more you practice, the better you'll become. It's like training your voice muscles to become stronger and more flexible.

Discovering Your Style

Every singer has their own unique style. Experiment with different genres of music and find the one that resonates with you. Whether it's pop, rock, jazz, or classical, embrace your individuality and let your voice shine.

Expressing Emotions

Singing is not just about hitting the right notes. It's about expressing emotions and connecting with your audience. Don't be afraid to let your feelings come through in your voice. Sing from your heart, and you'll touch the hearts of others.

Becoming an Authentic Vocal Artist

For those of you who are already talented singers and want to take your voice to higher levels, becoming an authentic vocal artist is within your reach.

Continued Learning

Never stop learning and growing as a singer. Attend workshops, study different vocal techniques, and learn from experienced vocal coaches. The more you know, the more tools you'll have to enhance your voice.

Performance Opportunities

To become an authentic vocal artist, you need to share your talent with the world. Look for opportunities to perform, whether it's at school events, local talent shows, or open mic nights. Embrace the stage and let your voice be heard.

Believe in Yourself

Lastly, believe in yourself and your abilities. Confidence is key when it comes to singing. Trust that you have something unique to offer and let your passion guide you. With determination and self-belief, you can become the fantastic singer or authentic vocal artist you aspire to be.


In conclusion, singing is a magical journey that anyone can embark on. Whether you're a natural talent or someone who wants to learn, the possibilities are endless. By understanding the complexities of voice production, practicing, and embracing your individuality, you can unlock your voice potential and create music that touches hearts. So go ahead, let your voice soar and discover the joy and wonder of singing!

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